Project Topic:

HOME ENERGY SAVING APPLIANCES AND LEVEL OF UTILIZATION BY WORKING CLASS WOMEN (A CASE STUDY OF KONTAGORA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE)

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 98 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   1,190 people found this useful

Project Department:

HOME ECONOMICS UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Energy is important in all human activities and, indeed is essential to social and economic development. Energy is only one of the many important inputs for production, conversion, processing and commercialization in all sectors (FAO, 2012). It is generally recognized that energy, including electricity, plays a significant role in the economic development of a country as it enhances the productivity of the nation when inputs such as capital and labor are considered. In addition, the increased consumption is an indication of increase in economic activities, and by inference, an improvement in economic development of energy signifies that a country has high economic ranking. Energy is important as it affects the economy which in turn affects people’s lives, their income, health, happiness and their ability to meet basic needs such as the need for infrastructure, education and so on. Electricity is essential to human development as it is in practice, indispensable for certain basic household activities, such as lighting, refrigeration and the running of household appliances, and cannot easily be replaced by other forms of energy (IEA, 2013). According to Medlock (2014), the exceptional economic growth and major improvements in standards of living in general over the last few decades have mainly come about because of the replacement of the work force with mechanical power through technological progress. Considering the socio-economic development in Africa, and in order to develop such standards in the Continent, better use of technology via electricity may need to be at the centre of long term planning. The demand for energy (i.e. electricity) in a developing country raises some important issues due to the existence of the black economy and the growing rate of urbanization, which exists in such nations. Many developing countries are still faced with the challenge of providing adequate and modern energy services to their communities, and the lack of such services may prevent the improvements to the standard of living through high income and job opportunities. Due to the nature of Nigeria as a country, and because of the lack of understanding of household dynamics and other factors influencing its dynamics, it is difficult to properly identify the effect of insufficient energy consumption on the improvements of the various regions in the country and on the standard of living of people. There is difficulty in designing or evaluating policies and programs intended to address the impact of the use of energy within households.  Energy is very important in the economic growth, progress, and development, as well as poverty elimination and security of any nation. Uninterrupted energy supply is a vital issue for Nigeria today. Energy enhances the provision of basic needs such as processed food, a comfortable living environment, lighting, the use of  electrical appliances, piped water or sewerage, necessary health care  that is refrigerated vaccines, emergency, and intensive care, educational aids, communication (radio, television, electronic mail, the World Wide Web), and transport. Energy also enhances productive activities including agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, industry, and mining. Conversely, a lack of access to energy contributes to poverty and deprivation and can contribute to the economic decline. Energy and poverty reduction are not only closely connected with each other, but also with the socioeconomic development, which involves productivity, income growth, education, and health. The study will reveal various home energy saving appliances and level of utilization by working class women in kontagora L.G.A of Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The supporting and inhibiting factors which influence the acceptance and the success of utilization for home energy saving appliances for working class women were identified. For the analysis the existing international policy programs which aimed at working class women were screened and insights from group discussions with the target group and with stakeholders such as bankers and municipals were gained. A working class woman in conjunction with the use of old and energy inefficient appliances can quickly lead to energy poverty. A possibility of counteracting such a development is to help working class women to invest in  home energy saving appliances. This has the dual benefit of providing a financial saving for the household however, have a double disadvantage in their lack of knowledge in saving energy in everyday life, converting energy saving tips into an investment of home  energy saving  appliances. Measures which consider both aspects could therefore help working class women to reduce energy costs. This study would evaluate  home energy saving appliances and level of utilization by working class women in Nigeria.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major aim of the study is to examine the home energy saving appliances and level of utilization by working class women. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To examine the extent to which working class women utilizes home energy saving appliances.
  2.  To examine the availability of different home energy saving appliances in various homes.
  3. To examine the impact of home energy saving appliances toward speedy accomplishment of task in homes. 
  4.  To determine the extent does home appliances saves energy during task execution in homes.
  5.  To examine the relationship between the cost of acquiring home appliances and its level of utilization by working class women.
  6.  To examine factors militating against use of home saving appliances by working class women in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. To what extent does working class women utilizes home energy saving appliances?
  2.  What are the different types of home energy saving appliances available in various homes?
  3. What is the impact of home energy saving appliances toward speedy accomplishment of task in homes? 
  4.  To what extent does home appliances saves energy during task execution in homes?
  5. What is the relationship between the cost of acquiring home appliances and its level of utilization by working class women?
  6. What are factors militating against use of home saving appliances by working class women in Nigeria?

1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis 1

  1. H0: There is no significant impact of home energy saving appliances toward speedy accomplishment of task in homes.
  2. H1: There is a significant impact of home energy saving appliances toward speedy accomplishment of task in homes.

Hypothesis 2

H0: There is no significant relationship between the cost of acquiring home appliances and its level of utilization by working class women.

H1: There is a significant relationship between the cost of acquiring home appliances and its level of utilization by working class women.

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study would be of immense benefit towards creating more awareness on the utilization of home energy saving appliances by working class women in Nigeria through proper assessment of the importance of home energy saving appliances to the country at large. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is restricted to home energy saving appliances and level of utilization by working class women in Nigeria, a case study of kontagora local government area of Niger state.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Energy: Is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule.

Appliance:  Device or piece of equipment designed to perform a specific task, electrical and gas appliances.

Home Appliances: Also known as domestic appliances, are electrical machines which helps in household functions, such as cooking, cleaning or food preservation.

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