1.1 Background of the Study
The emergence of street hawking in Nigeria as been so prevalent of which it as now become an eye. Sore situation Education. Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources.
Much than is said that formal education remains the vehicle for socio-economic, psychological and environmental development of any society. When we come to think of students, they are the ones who learn ideas to become more responsible and productive someday. Students from the rich and the poor, especially those in Egba Odeda High School are affected by myriad of factors. Examples of those factors are socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors. Socio-economic factors are believed to be the common factors affecting student’s academic performance. They have been suffering and socio-economic gap between families (Johnson, 1996), lamented that parents become poor due to those hard measure, such that they can no longer adequately for good education of their children.
High level of illiteracy, and poverty and low socio-economic status complied with high rate of paternal and material deprivation of student academic needs, which was necessitated by poor socio-economic situation. Home background according to PISA (Programme International Student Assessment, 2000) influences academic and educational success of students and school work, while socio-economic status reinforces the activities and functioning of the students.
Psychological factors also gives a big impact on student’s performance. One of these is street hawking among students. Danesy and Okediran (2002) elaborated that street hawking among students have psychologically imposed other problems, like sex networking behaviour, juvenile sequent behaviour, which takes much of the school time that necessities the poor academic performance and dropout syndrome among students.
Environment factors also influence academic performance learning environment is one. The learning environment that is free of barriers, or obstacles or distractions such as noise, gas/smoke pollutions and so on can constitute health hazards which in return affect or reduce student’s concentration or perceptive or conceptive focus to learning (Sprinthall, 1987).
Goethals (2001) found out that weak students do better when grouped with other weak students. As implied by Zonjonc (1976) that students of their own kind help them to improve their performance.
Socerdoke (2001) found out that grades are higher when students have unusually academically strong study partner. The findings of Zimmerman (1991, 2001) where some what contradictory to Goethal results but again is proved that student’s performance depends on number of different factor; it says that the weak peers might reduce the grades of middling or strong students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This project aims to determine the effects of hawking on students academic performance in selected junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. Many factors has been contributed to this effect of street hawking on students academic performance. And some of this factors are: socio-economic factor, psychological factor and environmental factor.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The following include the purpose of this study:
i. To find solution to the effect of hawking on students academic performance.
ii. To investigate the academic performance of students from street hawking,
iii. To determine whether socio-economic factor, psychological and environmental factors are also affect students academic performance.
iv. To eradicates street hawking in the society.
v. To urge government to provide free education for all citizens in order to eradicate illiteracy and poverty in the society.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The finding accumulated by this study may provide significant benefits to the following groups or individuals.
School Administration: They will be able to determine on how big difference they can make on the student’s academic performance. They can make ways to help students excel in their studies. For example, they can conduct school services, activities, academic programs and seminars that can be a sure fit solution to the student’s problems influencing their studies and performance.
Teachers: They can better understand why such student’s performance is like that. They will be able to help students to cope with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it.
Parents: They will be able to realize their role on their children’s academic performance. They will be able to guide them on their studies especially their performance in school.
Students: They will be able to know the factors that affect their academic performance. Thus, they will be able to manage their situations. This study will serve as a reason for them to be more serious with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study focuses mainly on the factors that affect student’s academic performance in Egba Odeda High School Odeda Local Government Abeokuta, Ogun State. The respondents in this study are 100 students. The respondents are asked to fill up the data in the survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire is composed of two sections. The introductory section includes basic questions used to identify the socio-demographic profiles of students. The second section of the survey questionnaire addresses the statements and questions under each factors mostly encountered by students.
Student respondents are asked to indicate their most appropriate rating for each item. The statement are intended to capture the effects or factors that mostly affects students academic preface.
1.6 Research Question
The researcher would like to provide answers to the following questions
i. Does hawking affects student’s academic performance?
ii. In what way does socio economic factors are believed to be the common factors affecting student’s academic performance.
iii. What are the causes of street hawking?
iv. Does environmental factors also influence student’s academic performance?
v. Does parental care affects students academic performance?
1.7 Definition of Terms
To constitute general comprehension, the terms were operationally defined for better understanding and justification of the study.
i. Hawking: a process in which a person try to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy them.
ii. Socio-economic factors: The term that refers to the social and economic aspects that influences student’s academic performance.
iii. Psychological factors: The term that refers to the behaviour and mental state of students and the people around him/her which affects his/her study.
iv. Environmental factors: The term that refers to the external and circumstances that surrounds the students that influences his/her performance.
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