TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPT OF CAREER CHOICE
2.2 CAREER DEVELOPMENT
2.3 INFLUENCE OF FAMILY FACTORS ON CAREER CHOICE
2.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER CHOICE
2.5 INFLUENCE OF PEERS ON CAREER CHOICE
2.6 INFLUENCE OF ROLE MODELS ON CAREER CHOICE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON CAREER CHOICE
2.7 INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON CAREER CHOICE
2.8 RELATIONS BETWEEN CAREER CHOICE AND VARIABLES SUCH AS GENDER, AGE AND RACE
2.9 THE RELATION BETWEEN CAREER CHOICE AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Career choice has become a complex science with the advent of information technology, the emergency of post industrial revolution and job competition. And as such, education is universally recognized to be the answer to socio-economic problems of the world. Nation and individuals look up to education to provide a clue or possibly, a cure for poverty, ignorance, jobless, hunger, bad governance, poor communication system and inadequate shelter among other things. Every nation of the world aspires towards quality of life and social status. Most student who are in secondary schools do not have adequate information about occupational opportunities to help them make appropriate career choice. This has led to so many swing of career path after graduation from the university. Hence, this has highlighted career selection as one of many important choice students make in determining future plans; these decision will impart them throughout their lives. Hence it is important to figure out the factors or determinant of career choice among secondary school student; so as to see if it can help to guide student to make the right and rational career choice. Thus, with the advent of information technology, the emergence of postindustrial revolutions and job competition, the choice of career has become a complex science (Okafor, 2012). These have given risen interest to scholars on the factors influencing career choice not just among student alone, but among adults. The essence of who the student is, will revolve around what the students want to do with their lifelong work. No matter ones age, the choice of career or desire is an important question for everybody. A lot of students in secondary schools believe that their future is a glorious adventure in which they are bound to succeed (salami and salami, 2013). Many of them have the idea that they would be able to work in the public or private establishments as soon as they complete their secondary education. Student in secondary schools like many other young adult are always worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult are always worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult they will become. Hewitt (2010), suggested that most people are influenced by career that their parent favor, others follow the career that their educational choice have opened for them, some choice to follow their passion regardless of how much or little it will make them; while others choose the career that gives high income. McQuaid and Bond (2008) cited that student perception of being suitable for particular jobs also has been found to be influenced by a number of factors which include ethnic background, years in school, level of achievement, choice of science subject, attitudes and difference in job characteristics. However, research show that the choice of career among secondary school student is determined by a combination of personal abilities, personality type and other factors (Okafor, 2012). This is why Onayase and Onayase, (2009) suggested an investigation into other factors which include some environmental factor such as family background, school environment, religious and peer group influence. However, all career have their subject requirement, personality characteristic and personal abilities while are supposed to be fully assessed before individual can be deemed to be qualified to go into specific career (Onayase and Onayase, 2009). Career choice is influence by multiple factors include personality, interest, self-concept, identity, globalization, socialization, role model, social support and available resources such as information and finance (Kerka, 2009).
Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, Pastorell, 2001) cited that each individual undertaking the process is influenced by several factors including the context in which they live in, their personal aptitudes, social contacts and educational attainment.
Hence, factors that influence career choice can either be intrinsic or extrinsic or both. In a study by Perrone, Sedlacek and Alexander (2008) on role model influence on the career decisiveness of college students it was found that role model supportiveness and quality of relationship contributed to the career choice of students. The same study indicated that majority of the student selected same gender. According to Oyamo and Amoth (2008), studies in Kenya showed that rural students tend to seek help from parents more than urban students and that parents more than teachers plays a major role in the career choice of students.
Hence, Okafor (2012) cited that generally, the choice of a career is influenced by parents, friends and counsellors. Variations occur from one population to the other. In Kenya, every secondary school student (SSS) makes their career choice before sitting for West African Examination Council (WAEC). The result of this final examination determining who Joins University since admission into careers are determined by grades obtained from it. When these students graduate from the universities, some of them enter into occupations that are totally different from the ones they had chosen and training for. The aim of this study is to look at how gender, home background and student learning outcome influence choice of career among secondary school students in Nigeria, using some selected schools in Oshodi Local Government Area of Lagos state as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nigeria is rapidly developing her technological education, which has made the society more complex than it was in the past. The number of occupation has increased greatly and also there are many careers within one occupation. For instance, farming which was a simple occupation some years ago is now a very complex occupation within many careers to choose from.
These included poultry, farming vegetable farming, e.t.c the implication of this is specialization. This is why the family, peer group, school environment and even the larger society influence the decision any student might make in choosing a life career. This constitutes a problem as students often make wrong choice.
But presently there is scanty research on the influence of environment factors such as gender, home background and student learning outcome on choice of career among secondary school students.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influence career choice among secondary school students in Nigeria; Specifically this study sought to:
1. Find out the influence of home background on career choice of secondary school student.
2. Examine the effect of students learning outcome on the choice of career among secondary school students.
3. Investigate the influence of gender in choice of career among secondary school students.
1.4 Research questions
The following research questions guides the researcher to arrive at a valid answer through the specific objectives above
1. What is the role of home background and how does it affect career choice among secondary school students?
2. Is student learning outcome an important factor in determining choice of career among secondary school students?
3. What influence does gender have in choice of career among secondary school students?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
It is important to note that no physical theory to date is believed to be precisely accurate. Hence, science has proceeded by a series of successive approximation.
Hypothesis of the study are as follows:
1. Ho: Students do not want to have control over their career choice.
H1: Students want to have control over their career choice
2. Ho: Student with involved parent, teachers or good career counsellors do not make better career choice than other students
H1: Student with involved parent, teachers or good career counsellors make better career choice than other students
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been recognized recently that for a person to make realistic decision, his level of self-efficacy can indeed be very influential. It is one thing to demonstrate interest in a particular occupational field; it is another thing to have confidence in one’s ability to successfully undertake the task involved.
Most students who are in secondary school do not have enough information about occupational opportunities to help them make rational and appropriate career choice. Hence this research work is sought to help the student understand and explore other options in making career choice.
A student tends to learn and accept information more from their teacher. Hence an uninformed teacher will tend to mislead or shy away from counselling the student with respect to career choice. This research seeks to help teachers to explore real career possibility of each student and guide them accordingly putting certain factors into cognizance
Teachers will guide and counsel student from their own perspective. If there are no laid down guideline by the school system. Hence this research seeks to help curriculum developer to understand the role of career choice to student and to help inculcate it in the curriculum of the school. This will in turn help the student explore the career opportunities available and make rational choice of career.
1.7 Scope of the study
It would have been ideal to stretch the scope of this study to cover more schools in the chosen local government (Ijebu East Local Government, Ogun State) in Ogun state, but for the minimum resources available and time factor, the area of the study of this project is limited students in Ijebu East Local Government Area in Ogun state.
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