The article on this topic (child hawking and educational development) is an extract from literature review of the project material. The complete project work would be made available when you subscribe for the full material.
2.1 Literature Review
In a research work of this magnitude, there ought to be existing work in the form of literatures to assist the researcher. But unfortunately there are quite a few. However, this research work with the existing literature in this area of study will add to the existing work on the subject matter.
2.2 Child Abuse and its Causes in Nigeria
Different forms of child abuse have characterized the history of hitherto existing society. Viewed from the western matrix, child abuse extends to several maltreatment children; mostly with regards to functions relating to certain responsibilities as child labour either in the form of “framework” “street hawking”, which many children in African embark upon as an acquired work role in an extended family system. But however, this study basically is on child hawking, as it affect educational development of the child.
One aspect of child maltreatment which has attracted serious attention of researchers (Gill 2000 and Abbee, 2000) is physical abuse
It then follows that the whom issue of child hawking requires a thorough assessment for the purpose of justification of terms, C.P Ekpe and Bowls (2006) saw child hawking and neglect as acts consisting of commission or omission, which interfere with the chance to develop their normal potentials as human beings. He went further to itemized child hawking as that which implies physical or mental injury, negligent treatment or maltreatment.
In this case the child suffers from lack of attention by parent manifested by malnutrition and lack of stimulation, Chris postulated that any definition of child abuse should take cognizance of the form of abuse including physical assault, psychological or emotional and sexual abuse.
Ewuruigwe and Naidu (2008) have discovered that there is a direct relationship between child hawking and poverty. They found out that the need for survival often pushes some children to secure employment outside the home.
According to Naidu (2004) poverty and irregularity are the major causes of child hawking that of other factor of child labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependence with the economic system in which these factor operate, “Ewuruijwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking that all other factors of child labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependent with the economic system in which these factors operate.” Ewuruigwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking in a number of factors. In his words poverty, the interesting of global network capitalism, shifting family structure, the nature of the state and mode of production as well as religion.
Egbigbo (2002) also stated that in eastern and western parts of Nigeria children trade for their house madams and parents to help in the family economy. Some also earn their school fees by hawking those who attended afternoon schools hawks in the morning and those who attend morning school hawk in the afternoon.
On the cultural aspect of child abuse, Naidu and Obikeze (1986) stressed the role of culture in child upbringing Obikeze pointed out that the children are reared in Nigeria in such a way that they are made to practice or do domestic works that are commensurate with their age, soc and physical ability such activities serve to provide the child with accessory skills and training required for future life.
Vinolia and Fubara (1996) had it that: here in Nigeria our child rearing pattern has been affected by our culture/ethnic setting as well as our social class. Each social class tends to have its social values and expectation likewise the ethnic groups.
They further added that because children are seen as God sent, African parents give birth to too many children as to have many helpers.
Schilakrout (1998) in her stuck of Kano cultural practices stated that “while a clear relationship scale among the majority of family in the middle income range, many cultural factors intervenes which are independent of economic factors”.
More so, in a study carried out by prime people magazine (Jan 26th and Feb 1st 2003) almost half of the respondents 50% agreed the fact that female hawkers entice man with their mode of dressing when hawking.
And this they say sometimes, lead to the ungodly act of rape and early unwanted pregnancy among female hawkers.
In fact, many scholars are of the view that the nature of society influence child labour; and that child labour in recent times became an instrument of class oppression in spite of the increasing cases of child abuse world wide, leaders every where have not thrown up their hand in pair.
On November, 20 1959 the 44th generation assembly of the united nation adopted the convention on the rights of the child. The convention has been variously described and magina carts or “bill of right: for children, it has fifty four (54) articles detailing the individual rights of any person under eighteen (18) years of age of develop to his or her full potential free from hunger and want neglect exploitation or other abuses.
Four of the convention articles specified signatory of national of which Nigeria is one, are obliged to recognize that every child has the inherent right to life and ensure the full survival and development of the child. Nigeria became a signatory of this convention in 1980. But twenty years before the federal government has operated the children any young persons law section 31 of the 1958 law forbid street trading among children.
Apart from providing a penalty and firm of N10,000.000 or six (6)months jail terms of both for an offender, the law further states that where a parent or guardian of a child contributes to the willful default of law, such parent on conviction may be fined N10,000.000 or in default or payment of three (3) months jails.
Based on these declarations at home and abroad, it is now a law that a child has the right to assistances before developing his full potentials and to be protected from all harms.
A child has the right to a good food, educations, good health, shelter, free play, he also has the right to participate, according to his capability in decision affecting him and the interest of the child should be taken into consideration when decision concerning such child is taken.
Therefore, any serious denial of any of these rights by a community an individual, or a nation is offensive.
The African Network for the prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) also drafted the African character on the rights and welfare of the child and was adopted by the African Union (A.U) then the A.U went to a head a named “June 16th of every year as the day of the African child. This also constituted a central agenda in an A.U meeting held in Abuja Nigeria recently.
Street trading and child labour have become a global phenomenon and a global concern. The United nations international children education fund (UNICEF) has estimated that there are 100 to 200 million child labourers across both industrials and developing countries. Estimates for Africa shows that 20% of children between the age of 10 to 14 are involved in child labour and street trading. As such, children have come to comprise 17% of Africa’s total labour force. Nigeria alone is estimated to have between 12 and 15 million child labours. According to human right watch (2004), at 15 million India has the largest child labour force in the world while Palistan records 7.5 million child labourer an Senegal about 500,000
The dramatic increase in child labour and street trading in Nigeria can be attributed in several factors. The rapid population growth of many loss developed countries, high rate of unemployment, inflation, low wages and deplorable working conditions have contributed to incidents of street trading and child labour as children attempt to help support their families (Charles and Charles, 2004, Deth, 1993). According to Arat (2002), the proliferation of industries can also be linked to an increase in street trading and child labour.
Social ills affecting children have been area of active empirical investigation. Indeed numerous studies exist on children who aling with their parents are homeless, and children who hawk in the street before, after school and on weekends and holidays. This study will bring to light the dangers associated with street trading and child labour as reported by children who engage in these practices. The major objective will be to identify the health educational and social consequences of street trading and child labour in the Yenegoa metropolis of the Beyalsa State.
In some cases children involved in child labour to help their parents or families in terms of financial distress by paying for some or all of the family’s rent, food, clothes, utilities and so on. In addition to these expenses, national estimates put the number of children under 14 years of age working to pay for the cost of school at 8 million (fos, 2008). The same estimates reveal that about one (1) million children have been forced to drop out of school because their parents demand that they stop attending in order to boost the family income. These statistics most certainly carry consequences for manpower development and human resources of he nation.
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