The article on this topic (availability of instructional materials for the teaching of business studies in Nigeria) is an extract from literature review of the project material. The complete project work would be made available when you subscribe for the full material.
2.0. LTERATURE REVIEW
This section reviews the works of authors in the area of availability of instructional materials; the section shall be treated under the following sub headings:
Concept of learning among secondary school students
Factors that Affect Learning of Business Studies
Overview of Learning Theories
Relevance of Audio Visual Aids in teaching of Biasness Studies
Instructional Aids and Teaching of Business Studies in secondary schools
Summary of the Literature
2.1 Concept of Learning among Secondary School Students
Many psychologists have attempted to classify learning. This is because it is generally believed that the type of learning expected determines the method of teaching to adopt. The most popular classification of the domains of learning is that given by Bloom and his associates n 1956.They are the psychomotor domain which refers to development of manipulative or motor skills which require efficient co-ordination between our brains and muscles; the cognitive domain which refers to intellectual skills and abilities. It is achieved by mental processes such as reasoning remembering and recall; the affective domain which refers to changes in interest, attitudes and value which influence our personalities. In practice, there is to some extent an overlapping from one domain to the other. All forms of learning are in these three domains. It is your responsibility to select appropriate techniques that would facilitate learning.
Students have many responsibilities with regard to their learning, students who make the effort required to succeed n school and who are able to apply themselves will soon discover that there is a direct relationship between this effort and their achievement , and will therefore be more motivated to work. There will be some students however, who will find it more difficult to take responsibility for their learning because of special challenges they face.
For these students, the attention, patience, and encouragement of teachers can be extremely important factors for success. Taking responsibility for their own progress and learning is an important part of education for all students, regardless of their circumstances. Mastery of all concepts and skills in business studies require a sincere commitment to work, study and the development of appropriate skills. Teachers are responsible for developing appropriate instructional strategies to help students to achieve the curriculum expectations, as well as appropriate methods for assessing and evaluating student learning [Daniels 2008].
Teachers also support students in developing the reading, writing, oral communicate and numeracy skills needed for success in their courses. Teachers bring enthusiasm and various teaching and approaches to the classroom, addressing different student needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student. Using a variety of instructional, assessment and evaluation strategies teachers provide numerous opportunities for students to develop skills of inquiry and communication to acquire marketable business skills while learning fundamentals concepts.
Business education curriculum planners in Nigeria except n junior secondary school students who go through the three years junior secondary school business studies programme to acquire ’‘practical business and entrepreneurial skills and attitudes to prepare them for self-employment’’[Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2008]. To equip learners with these skills, they recommend hat teachers employ learner-centered teaching methods such as project work, educational visits, and use of business resource persons, business simulations, group discussions case studies and school based mini enterprises run and operated by students. The findings of this study suggest that teachers and curriculum planners are not singing from the same hymn book, thus the pedagogical practices of business studies teachers are at variance with the expectations of the curriculum planners.
Teachers-centered pedagogy is the dominant of instruction while entrepreneurial pedagogies are used sparingly. Teachers seem to be more concerned with completing the business studies syllabus in time for examinations at the expense of imparting business skills and literacy through the use of constructivist pedagogies as prescribed in the syllabus. The findings of this study suggest that the practices of business studies teachers do not confirm to the expectations of curriculum planners in that teacher-centered and not learner-centered pedagogy appears to be the dominant mode of instruction in schools. If business education curriculum planners want their prescriptions translated successfully into practice, they must factor in support structures to ensure that these prescriptions are fully adopted an implemented. There is need for staff development to assist teachers with he implementation of the business education curriculum [Kennedy& Gibson, 2000].
The school inspectorate, the National Business Studies Panel and School administrators should monitor and ensure that the delivery of business education is done according to stipulated curriculum and set standards as well as enforce the fulfillment of pedagogical practices set in the syllabus. If teachers are deviating from prescribed teaching methodologies, it is the responsibility of school administrators and heads of business studies departments to ensure that the best standards in he teaching and bearing of the subject are complied with. Resourcing for the delivery of business education should include the provision of computer laboratories.
In Nigeria, Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a major focus of the country’s economic agenda and the Revised National Policy on Education  highlighted he need for all learners to be taught computer skills at all levels of school. Nigeria has made a tremendous effort to provide resources for its junior secondary schools and this is evidenced by the fact that all junior senior secondary schools have fully equipped computer laboratories [Isaac 2007]. Information communication technology (ICT) has considerable potentials in the business classroom [Barrington 2004] in that it can be used whilst undertaking a variety of classroom activities such as research assignments, key business applications like spreadsheets, data bases and presentations, including the use of internet as a resource for acquiring knowledge. The internet opens up vast knowledge sources, is available around the clock and it optimally supports student- centered teaching [Motschinig- Pitrik, 2001].
Future studies might do well to use multi-method research designs to examine more fully the current availability of instructional materials for business studies teachers including their weakness with a view to proffering pedagogical models and approaches that would help o maximize learner acquisition of business skills, literacy and competencies. Such studies could also focus on identifying specific intervention strategies that will assist teachers to employ recommended pedagogical practices in business studies classrooms.
2.2 Factors that Affect Learning of Business Studies
An understanding of factors that affect learning will be of great help to you as a teacher. According to Daugherty (2006), differences in abilities, readiness, motivation and interest affect learning. As a teacher, according to farrant (2006), you must know the pre – requisite for efficient learning which are readiness, motivation and involvement. Ideal learning conditions therefore include mental, physical and social readiness of the learner, motivation and activities according to MCNICOI (2003), students are likely to learn, when they are willing, curious, inspired, have a goal to achieve, derive satisfaction from learning, have capacity to learn, are actively involved, have favourable social atmosphere and classroom conditions are satisfactory.
Motivation: the degree of motivation or student has for the learning task could affect his learning. The desire to learn is inherent in all normal persons. You must motivates your students to use their innate ability you should apply incentives and arouse their increase for the purpose of causing them to perform in a desired way remember your goal is to bring about a desire arrange in the behavior of your students you must devise as many ways as you can to create within each students, the desire to learn. This is basically what teaching is
Interest: interest in a subject, does not guarantee success in the subject, studies have however shown a very high degree of correlation between interest in a subject and success in learning, it is true that learning can take place without apparent interest. It is also a known fact that interest in a subject makes the learning to take place easier, faster and more lastingly.
Readiness: this refers to the physical, mental, emotional or social maturation of the learner as well as foundation for the building of new learning.
2.3 Overview of Learning Theories
An overview of learning theories and their implication to teaching and learning. Learning theories are creative attempt to find out how learning takes place in the learners and the means by which it can be improved. According to Daugherty (2004), learning is a change in an individual through some form of experience. It is a known fact that learning takes place easier, faster and lastingly under some conditions than others. Teaching methods are the strategies adopted and used y teachers in transferring learning in a classroom teaching learning process. Learning theories which have dominated educational thinking today can be traced to four major schools: classical behaviorists (the stimulus – responses bonds group), purposive behaviorist, cognitive theories and gestalt theories be meaningful the theories of learning propounded by psychologists such as Pavlov, thorn dike, Tolman, Skinner, Dewey and Ausubel, and Gestalt theorists to mention a few shall be mentioned here. However those of Thorndike and Tolman shall be examined as well as their significance to business education of which business studies is a part.
Teaching method according to Daugherty (2004), are the broad pattern of thinking which a teacher follows to help his students reach the goal set for the course in other words, they are the strategies adopted and used by teacher in transferring learning in a classroom teaching learning process. A good teaching method should not aim at teaching too much or too little at any given lesson what you have prepared should be adequate for the lessons period. What should determine the content of a lesson include the age, interest, ability, maturity of the learners as well as the nature of the subject matter to be taught.
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