1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Selection and acquisition are terms used in provision of library materials.
Selection is the process of choosing while acquisition is the process of obtaining library materials (Anyanwu, et al, 2006) selection must precede acquisition, what to select depends on the type of library since the library is interested in serving primarily its clientese which could be homogenous or heterogeneous (Oduagwu, 2002). Book selection is used as a generic term covering the selection of both book and non-book materials for library.
Acquisition on the other hand is a process of obtaining books and other items for the library, documentation centre, or archives (Harrods, 2000). Acquisition is carried out through purchase, gift, exchange and legal deposit.
Provision of current information which supports the curriculum of the parent institution is as a result of selection and acquisition in the academic libraries.
The following factors are considered in selecting materials for academic libraries,
i. Aims and objective of the institution
ii. The number of faculty members
iii. The number of departments / subjects areas
iv. Research and teaching needs
v. The nature of materials required in terms of book and non-book.
There is a specific library acquisition policy which specify the type and range of items to be selected and acquired. The purpose of the acquisition policy is to serve as a reference for the library staff to follow when assessing potential acquisition for the library collections including print and non-print materials, electronic and other type of resources. The mission of the acquisition policy is to ensure that the selection of library resources supports the educational need of the students, administrations and staff of the institution.
Anyanwum et al, 2006 Started that selection is of very important because of literature explosion, reduction in library budget, reduction in income of library users and pressure from the both the publishers and the library users.
Grey literature is one of the materials selected and acquired in Libraries.
Grey literature is defined as…”information produced on all levels of government, academia, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing” i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body”
M. C. Debachere has written that it is easier to describe, rather than define grey literature. Collectively, the term covers an extensive range of materials that can be found easily through conventional channels such as publishers, “but which frequently is original and usually recent”
Peter Hirtle in Broadsides Vs. Grey literature defines is as: The quasi-printed reports, unpublished but circulated papers, unpublished proceedings of conferences, printed programs from conferences and other non-unique materials which seems to constitute the bulk of our modern manuscript collections (Hirtle, 1991). Dissertations also make up an important part of grey literature, as well as meeting papers” or preprints that are given out before conferences and meetings, and they could end up as journal articles (Augur 1989, 63).
Grey literature is of paramount importance in the library because, it serves scholars and lay readers alike with research summaries, facts, statistics, and other data that after a more comprehensive view of the topic of interest.
In all, selection and acquisition of grey literature in libraries therefore, is the process of choosing and obtaining this kind of literature in libraries.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE TWO SCHOOLS UNDER STUDY
1.2.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI (FUTO) LIBRARY.
According to the FUTO library guide and regulations, the Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) library was initially located at lake Nwaebere campus as a temporary site while the permanent library was under construction at Ihiagwa. The preparatory work for the library began in June 1981 with J. C. Anafulu as the pioneer University Librarian. A classroom block was selected and converted into a make-shift library.
It was filled with shelves for ten (10) thousand volumes of library materials. Other members of the professional staff joined in October to prepare for the opening on the 19th November 1981. at the time of the opening, approximately 2,500 volumes were on the shelves. However, the importance of journals to the science and technology oriented University community was re-organised at an early stage and a list of about 600 tittles were ordered for.
In the month of May, 1982, the reserved collections was introduced, the total volume of books held by the library reached six thousands (600), and borrowing privileges were then extended to students. After two years of operating in classroom blocks, the University library was moved to a permanent building in the first week of September, 1983. the building was modified to meet the requirements of a growing university library.
On the 17th of May, 1983, the Library moved along with the university to its permanent site. On arrival, the pilot plant house of the school of science was immediately converted to a library. In no time it was realised that the building was too small to accommodate the ever-increasing stock, staff and library users. As such, the library moved partly to the library phase IV in 1995, thereby making available two library building fo use: Pilot plant and phase IV library building. The Pilot Plant Library building. The pilot plant library was left within serials section, technical section for catalogue and classification, acquisition section, the information technology unit, documentation and Archives section. The pilot plant library is regarded as reference library s no borrowing is done there. The library phase IV which was originally intended to be a reading room is centrally situated at a convenient distance from the Hostels. The organogram of the library materials is situated at the entrance to the Library. The library has seating capacity of about 500.
There are various types of materials in the university library which are separated into six collections. These are the reference the loans, the reserve and the serial collections. They also include documentation / Achieves and information technology collections.
A breakdown of the section to date is shown as follows:
Bound periodicals 4,850
Total of all formats 68,670
(Excluding current periodicals)
Current periodicals 41
Library serials holdings 1,184
CD-ROM collection 64
EBSCO database (CDROM) 50
1.2.2 BACKROUND INFORMATION ON IMO STATE UNIVERSITY (IMSU) LIBRARY
Imo state university library, Owerri is as old as its institution which was establish in 1981, following a law passed on the 13th of April 1981, by the Imo State House of Assembly during the Mbakwe’s Administration. The school was officially opened in two campuses, i.e. Aba and Etiti in October 1982.
The school was later moved to Okigwe by the then Military Administratrion, major General Ike Nwachukwu (Rtd) but was relocated to Owerri from Okigwe in 1992 as contained in the law establishing the institution.
Imo state university was opened in 1993 at Lake Nwaebere campus before the admissions of students, and Dr. Omonogbo became the first acting Librarian of the university library. Since then the stock has been increasing and it is of note that the library stock has received gifts both in cash and in materials from individuals and European union, British consulates and all activities of the goal of its parent institution.
As stated in the Imo State University library fact sheets, the library system of the school consist of ten libraries;
They are as follows:
i. The Main library
ii. The Law Library
iii. The college of Medical library
iv. The library of the faculty of Business Administration
v. The department of the Architectural Library
vi. Social Science Library
vii. Humanities Library
viii. Department of Education Library
ix. Quantity Surveying Library
x. The Agricultural Library
The activities of all these libraries are co-ordinated from the main library which is the institutional library. This is to enable to provide efficient and effective services to its clients in various faculties and colleges of the institution.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Selection and acquisition of grey literature has always been problematic. As Charles .P. Augur points out in his book, the core reason for difficulties in identifying and acquiring this kinds of literature are due to its :poor bibliographic information and control, non-professional layout and, low print runs” (Augur 1989,3). The implementation of bibliographic control through ISBN, ISSN and report number has been somewhat helpful, but also disorganized. For instance, reports which makes up the lion’s share of grey literature, do not use ISBN as a rule Instead, reports numbering was intrated as a means to introduce standardisation.
The problem is that, these numbers were designed to include subject matter, date, form, agency, section, additional data and consequently are quite long and confusing.
In addition some categories of this kind of literature do contain security restrictions. M.C Debachere points out that problems arise in libraries when a pation request a particular document and it is not apparent where to begin the search. (Debachere, 1995, 95).
1.4 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is focused on challenges of selection and acquisition of grey literature in libraries. It is extremely difficult to conduct a research of this nature that embraces all libraries in Nigeria, this is because the vital data for such a study will be difficult to come by.
Therefore, to ensure the efficient and effective collection of relevant data, the researcher brought the scope of the study to a more manageable size and will restrict the investigation to only two academic libraries, namely; Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) and Imo State University (IMSU) libraries both of Owerri. It is natural to encounter problems in a study like this because it’s broader wise.
In as much as time and financial constraint becomes my shortcoming, in terms of transportation and photocopying materials, this research work is limited to internet search and interviews form acquisition librarians of two schools stated above.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is carried to:
i. Identify the importance of grey literature in libraries.
ii. To find out its selection and acquisition process.
iii. To know the different types of grey literature.
iv. To know what challenges are encounter in acquiring grey literature and how to face them.
v. To know what constitute the grey literature and who uses them.
vi. To identify the problems of grey literature and their possible solutions.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Is there need for grey literature in the academic libraries?
2. Does your library select and acquire grey literature?
3. If it does what kind of grey literature does it acquire?
4. Does your library encounter any challenges in acquiring the grey literature?
5. If yes, what challenges does it encounter?
6. When last did your library acquire the grey literature?
1.7 AIMS/PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to fulfil the basic requirement for award of National Diploma (HND) in the department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.
The purpose of this research work is to contribute to the development of library collection and to make effective tool in grey literature as management tool in an academic library. The study will also add to the literature of librarianship as well as be of immense help to the students, lecturers, librarians, schools and the nation at large.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to provide assistance to those in scholarly environments wishing to extend their research capabilities. This study will also save the scholars and lay readers alike with research summaries, facts, and other data that offer more comprehensive view of their topic interest.
Quick access, greater flexibility, and opportunity to go into considerable details when necessary are all the significance this study will provide to scholars/students.
The study also is very significant to students who may wish to replicate the work for better research as it serve as reference source.
1.9 DEFINATION OF THE TERMS
1.9.1 SELECTION: It is the act of choosing items or library materials yet to be acquired for the satisfaction of library clienteles. It is the act of choice and a quantity of variety choosen from the lists of publication. It must precedes acquisition because, it is only when you select that you can acquire what you have selected.
1.9.2 ACQUSTITION: This is the act of obtaining materials selected. It is the act of making available the library materials that was selected from the list of publication, and it is done through the following channels, purchase, gifts, inter-library loan or exchange, legal deposit, etc. It is a term used for provision of library materials.
1.9.3 GREY LITERATURE: This is the term used to cover all publications that are not controlled by commercial publishing interests. That is, those publications that are issued by government, academia, business and industry in both print and electronic format. Grey literature comprises of newsletters, reports, working papers, theses, government documents, bulletins, fact sheets, symposia, conference proceedings etc.
Virtually everything we read outside of journals and books can be considered grey literature.
1.9.4 LIBRARIES: When there is more than one library, there are libraries. A library is not a store house of books as commonly believed by some people (layman), rather it is a collection of books and non-book materials organised for use. It is a store house of information and knowledge. It is an agency that is involved in the selection, acquisition, organisation, preservation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information through books and non-book material for users.
1.9.5 A library could also be “a building room or set of rooms containing an organised collection of prints and/or non-print materials for the use of the public or of some particular portion of it (Oduagwu, 2002).
(1) Anyanwu, E. Zander, E., and Emma, A. (2006)
Introduction to collection development in libraries. Owerri: Springfield publishers ltd. P. 47 and 85
(2) Augur, C.P (1989) I nformation sources in Grey Literature, 2nd ed.
(3) Gelfard, J. (1998) “ Teaching and Exposing Grey Literature: What the information profession needs to know; Examples from the sciences”
Amstardam: Trans Atlantic
(4) Oduagwu, E.A (2002) Library and information science: Theory and Practice.
Owerri: Grace of God publishers
p.2 and 70
(5) Subramanyam, K. (1981) Scientific and technical information Resources.
Newyork: Deker, p.2-3
OTHER SIMILAR LIBRARY INFORMATION SCIENCE PROJECTS AND MATERIALS