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MANAGEMENT OF ABATTIOR WASTE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF BODIJA AND AKINYELE MARKET)

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Management of Abattior wastes has been of great concern in Nigeria. Almost every day in all the urban and rural markets in our county Nigeria, animals are slaughtered while the meats are sold to the public for consumption. Meat wastes sprang up from killing and also dehairing, paunch handling, rendering, trimming, processing and clean-up operations. That is the reason we will say that abattoir wastes often contain blood, fat, organic and inorganic solids, and salts and chemicals added during processing operations.

In Nigeria, it is required that the Food and Drug companies that are in charge of importing livestock products and those produced locally meet the needs spelled out under the relevant Nigerian Standard for Meat and Meat Products. Despite the fact that Nigerian laws provide butchers and importers of meat with rules and regulations that ensure high safety and quality standards as well as a an all-embracing procedure which brings their activities into compliance with the law, making the law active appears to be a huge problem. Presently, activities at theBodjija and Akinyeleabattoir meet only 210 percent of the requirements pointed under the major standard for meat production and none of the storage requirements. The activities of the Abattoir are meant to regain the suitable and eatable portions of slaughtered animals for human consumption. In the process, important quantities of waste materials(organic and inorganic solids) are brought into existence. The solid waste comprises chiefly of bones, undigested ingest and occasionally aborted fetuses while the liquids includes of blood, urine, water, dissolved solids and gut contents. A good number of researchers point out that slaughterhouse activities are responsible for the pollution of surface and underground waters in addition to the quality of air which indirectly affect the health of residents living within the vicinity of abattoirs. Beside these, primary producers in the affected water bodies October also be destroyed by pollutants, which October directly or indirectly affect fish yield, accompanied by serious consequences on human diet. Inadequate discharge of blood and animal faeces into streams October cause a huge oxygenreduction as well as nutrientover enrichment of the receiving system which could cause increased rate of toxin accumulation (Nwachukwu 2014). Humanbeings October also be affected through sudden increase of water borne diseases and other respiratory and chest diseases. Abattoir waste disposal in many developing countries likeNigeria, especially in the Bodija and Akinyele market has been a very serious challenge over the years. In most cases, waste materials are disposed of without regard to sound environmental management practices; this makes them harmful to humans and other terrestrial and aquatic life. Numerous past and present research works from Nigeria and other developing nations show that many abattoirs in the respective countries either deposit waste materials in the direct environsor dispose their wastes directly into water bodies. Some also argued that the practice is majorly due to lack of or inadequate waste recovery and treatment facilities. In Nigeria, increasing demand for animal products especially meat has led to increase in the volume of abattoir waste generation and theconcerns about this situation is growing rapidly. An enquiry into activities of the main abattoir in the Bodija and Akinyele metropolis showed that liquid waste from the area was highly polluted, with all the measured parameters exceeding acceptable standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Nigeria. The studyalso revealed that residents within the community where the Abattoirhouse is located complained of bad smell from the liquid, pollution of their water sources and frequent sudden increase of different diseases among others. There has been a great concern about the way in which carcasses are prepared and subsequently handled en route to the markets.

1.2. Statement of the general problem

Environmental pollution is a huge threat to man’s physical surrounding, his health (Fereidoun et al, 4007) and those of other living species (EPHA, 4009). It therefore attracts scholarly attention since pollution problem is an exceedingly difficult one to solve (Robertson, 1987) especially in a developing country. Man damages the environment either intentionally by design or unintentionally by accident. Whatever the source of damages, he bears the primary consequences which are evident in the daily damages and deterioration of the environment and overall threat to his general well being. Schaefer and Lamn (19910) recalled the impossibility of examining all environmental problems in detail, but summarized them into three crucial types which are, air pollution, water pollution and contamination of land.

The general problem of abattoir waste generated from markets has caused a lot of health hazards to the society; chief among these hazards is air pollution. The constant dumping of abattoir waste without adequate treatment in our markets has led to the outbreak of diseases in the society.

1.3. Aims and objectives of the study

The major aim of the study is to examine the management of abattoir waste in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To examine the negative consequences of lack of adequate treatment of abattoir waste in Nigeria.
  2. To determine the level of treatment of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market in Oyo state, Nigeria.
  3. To examine the effect of abattoir waste on the socio economic development of Oyo state.
  4. To investigate the role of the federal and state governments towards adequate management of abattoir waste in Oyo state.
  5. To recommend ways of effective management of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market.

1.4. Research Questions

  1. What are the negative consequences of lack of adequate treatment of abattoir waste in Oyo state?
  2. Are abattoir waste effectively managed in Oyo state?
  3. What is the level of treatment of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market in Oyo state, Nigeria?
  4.  What are the effects of abattoir waste on the socio economic development of Oyo state?
  5. What are the roles of the federal and state governments towards adequate management of abattoir waste in Oyo state?
  6. What are the ways of effective management of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market?

1.10. Research Hypothesis

H0: Abattoir wastes are not effectively managed in Nigerian markets

H1: Abattoir wastes are effectively managed in Nigerian markets

H0: There is no significant effect of abattoir wastes on the socio economic development in Nigeria

H1: There is a significant effect of abattoir wastes on the socio economic development in Nigeria

1.6. Significance of the study

The study would be of immense importance to the state government as it would recommend ways of effective management of abattoir waste in markets in Oyo state. The study would also be importance to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in further studies on abattoir waste management in Nigeria.

1.7. Scope and limitation of the study

The study is restricted to the management of abattoir waste in Nigeria using a case study of Bodija and Akinyele markets in Oyo state.

Limitation of the study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

 Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

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